Every now and then I get a question on the forum something like this: “Speaker A has a listed sensitivity (SPL) of 99-db, and speaker B is listed at 98dB, yet you say speaker B is the louder one … what’s up with that”. Okay, that’s an excellent topic for a blog, let’s dig in!
In its pure form, Sensitivity is defined as the speakers’ ability to convert power into sound. The standard way of measuring a speakers’ sensitivity is using 1 watt/1 meter, meaning a microphone is placed 1 meter away from the speaker to measure the sound output (in decibels) with 1 watt of sound played through it. Man, so many problems with this … where to start?
Most of these measurements are taken at 800Hz or 1000Hz. That only tells you what the speaker’s efficiency is in THAT frequency (the heart of midrange). A speaker with an enormous bottom end may have a very un-impressive looking sensitivity spec … but still be VERY impressive in actual use … because a measurement at 800-1000Hz just doesn’t address the speakers real strength. In my perfect world, we would use white noise (consisting of all frequencies from 20Hz-20,000Hz in equal amounts) for the SPL measurement … that would help.
Because today’s solid state amplifiers do a good job across the board of maintaining a voltage output of 2.83 volts, many companies consider this as their standard of measurement. Here again, 2.83 volts are inputted and measured at 1 meter. [Note: 2.83 volts into an 8 ohm load is equal to 1 watt. Ohm’s Law: Power (watts) = Voltage (V) x Current (I) or Power = V_/R (impedance in Ohms)] In the good old days, 1-watt was always 1-watt RMS … today, ya gotta watch out, it may be 2.83 volts! Because a speakers’ efficiency in transforming (transducer) power into sound is greatly determined by the impedance of a speaker, (see more on impedance below) 2.83 volts becomes greater … about 1.5 watts at 6 and 2 watts at 4 ohms — a 3dB increase, which to our ears sounds significantly louder.
This is huge, because a speaker’s impedance is never a static number; it changes given the frequency it is attempting to reproduce … and it especially fluctuates in tube amps, which “reflect” the speakers impedance to the tubes and vice-versa. Some speaker companies give frequency-specific impedance charts, but this can get confusing, and it still doesn’t address the issue fully.
And last; how many guitar players gig using about 1-watt RMS anyway? I’m going to say absolutely none! This is probably the most important of all my points. You see, audio follows a logarithmic, not a linier scale. Check this little chart out of an “AVERAGE” speaker with a rated sensitivity of 97dB:
Power in watts
Volume in dB
At the bottom end, adding just ONE watt (going from 1 to 2-watts) gives you that noticeable 3-db increase in actual volume (Sound pressure level) … but by the time you get up to actual stage levels of say 115dB or so, you are needing to add an extra 60-watts to get that same 3-dB increase. Wow.
Well, first, a guitar player should always take all T/S specs with a grain of salt! Beyond that, we should be more concerned with the sensitivity of a speaker at average gigging levels and at the actual entire frequency range of out instrument. The T/S specs were birthed in 1925, and haven’t been updated since 1972. Yes, they still are of some aid, especially when building and/or tuning a speaker cabinet to complement a given speaker … but to consider any T/S spec as the holy bible of speaker performance is a mistake
See Ya’ll next week, it’s gonna be BIG!
Hi fellow tone seekers, great to be with you once again on this fine day. Hey, hows about we talk “partscasters”? In particular, let’s talk about the value of a partscaster in cold, hard cash. Cool, let’s dig in.
As I pen this blog, in the summer of 2015, I can say without reservation that the partscaster phenomenon is in full-tilt boogie. From boutique “builders” charging multiple thousands of dollars for their beat-up and bolted together “custom builds” to the average Joe having a little fun in his garage, this trend is huge. Some online music retailers even have a business model based merely on buying complete guitars, dismantling them, and selling the pieces individually. It’s hard for me to understand why a guitar … especially an EXCELLENT one like, say, an Eric Johnson Strat, is worth more in pieces than it is as an entire, exquisite instrument, but hey, that’s exactly the way it is as of 2015. Go figure. What’s up? Let’s talk about it.
Least you think this shaping up to be a general bashing of the partscaster movement, now would be a nice time for a confession or two. First, I am currently working with a quality boutique builder, Rock Road Guitars on my own Tele-style build. Not exactly a “partscaster” since he actually carves his own necks, but … Second, I am seriously considering the purchase of a Strat style partscaster from a local hobbyist who simply bolts parts together. So there! No snobbery here, we’re just going to ferret out the facts as best we can. And, the two options I just laid out in essence comprise the biggest question: Is it a guitar made by a for-real builder who does some actual woodworking, or a hobbyist who bolts readily available parts together? Either can wind up with a nice guitar, but chances are better with the former.
Now, I’m not going to name names, but I am aware of quite a large number of boutique “builders” who simply bolt off-the-shelf parts together, “relic” them, and sell them as a multi-thousand dollar piece of artwork. Personally, I don’t get that … and from what I have witnessed, those guitars on the used market bring about 20 to 25 cents on the dollar of what you pay for them new. I.e.: your $2000 “custom” Strat has a real-world value of about $400-500. How about a guitar put together in a garage with components all sourced from somewhere like All-Parts or Stew-Mac? Well, you’re probably going to end up with a minimum of about $400-500 in the parts, and if you do a nice job of putting it together, it’ll be a guitar worth about that much on the open market … especially if you put a Fender water-slide decal on the headstock … or better yet, have your own decals made, and call it a “boutique custom build”.
Let’s talk about that $400-500 price range. Although the sky seems to be the limit when placing an order with a custom builder, from what conversations I’ve had with fellow Nashville guitar players, and what I’ve seen on the forums, there seems to be a consensus that five hundred bucks is about the most people feel comfortable paying for a “partscaster” on the USED market. And, to pay this price, ya gotta be in LOVE with it. In a way that’s too bad, the honest truth is that the average $500 partscaster … even bolted together by a rank armature … is far superior to a “Standard” made-in Mexico Strat. I mean, it’s almost impossible to actually BUY electronics and pickups as poor as what's in a Mexi-strat, unless you buy direct from Chinese mills! But, on the flip side, I get it; once the partscaster hits the real-world, it’s just plain an unknown commodity, even if it is comprised of quality “parts”. Even those with botique decals are often seen as mearly "off-brand" by the vast majority of the general guitar buying public.
Okay, so there, I’ve went ahead and said it: five hundred bucks, pay more than that for a “Tele” or “Strat” that’s been bolted together by someone other than a Fender employee in the USA and you need to be prepared to lose money on it if you ever sell it. So the question is why would you (or anyone for that matter) ever want to pay more than that? That’s easy, because you LOVE the guitar! It speaks to you in the voice of a true love. It whispers your name and gives you inspiration. It’s your one true muse. When you find this instrument, “resale value” has no place in the conversation; you’re gonna be buried with this guitar. Your wife will complain that you “love that guitar more than you love me”, and she’ll be right. So there, I think we’ve arrived at our final value: five hundred bucks max … unless love is involved.
See Ya’ll next week.
I recently received an email from one of my pickup affectionados in Germany asking a question that I realized is of ULTIMATE importance in Strat tone: “what is the best distance from the pickup to the strings for the best results?” Now that’s a question EVERYONE who owns or works on Strat’s NEEDS to know the answer to!
I need to make it clear that I am talking about real-deal vintage pickups and real-deal quality pickups like the ones made by Jason Lollar, Curtis Novak, Lindy Fralin, And myself. Those crappy Ceramic Bars glued next to steel slug things that come standard in so many Strat’s and Strat copies today cannot really be made to sound good, so a trip to the waste-basket is the only course of treatment for them.
I prefer to use a digital caliper to take measurements, but a quality luthier’s ruler will do fine if you have excellent vision! I also should mention that these measurements should be taken from the High & Low E POLE-PIECES, not the plastic cover. Okay, so with no further ado, here are my suggestions and reasons why.
Low E: 3.80mm / 0.149"
Hi E : 4.74mm / 0.186"
Often people will place the bridge pickup too high (close to the strings), with a VINTAGE set this destroys the tone, making it sound too narrow, focused, brittle, and harsh. The reason so many folks get used to placing this pickup as close as possible to the strings is because many of the currently made Strat pickups are muddy and severely lacking in the characteristic chime and sparkle we all love in a Strat! As with all truly fine Strat sets, my pickups certainly do NOT suffer from this lack of sparkle!
Low E: 4.75mm / 0.186"
Hi E : 4.13mm / 0.163"
Here, for me, it's all about making the middle pickup truly magical when combined with the neck or bridge pickup (positions 2 & 4). Yes, these measurements sound exquisite when using the middle pickup all by itself, but it REALLY brings out the glassy, airy beauty that folks crave in the "in-between" positions on a Strat!
Low E: 5.25mm / 0.207"
Hi E : 4.37mm / 0.172"
This is actually a very standard placement, and about where most Strats will come set from the factory. There are three goals here. First, we want a great "SRV" type tone that sings beautifully and does not fall apart into mud even with EXTREME amounts of gain added (think dual daisy-chained Tube Screamers). Second, we want to be able to roll the tone back a little and have a truly rewarding experience playing big Jazz chords and lines. And last, we want to ensure it blends perfectly with the middle pickup for that air and glass we mentioned.
Over the decades I’ve owned a fair number of what I call “big Boy” Les Pauls; you know, the kind with full binding, extra-glossy finishes, and multi-thousand dollar price tags. I have failed to bond with any of them in a sufficient enough manner to justify my keeping them. It’s quite possible that the problem is that I’m just downright spoiled. You see, I’ve had opportunity to possess … but never actually own … several 58 and 59 Pauls. That WILL spoil you, they really are THAT good. Okay, let’s cut to the chase … A couple months back a buddy of mine asks me what I know about the vintage “Burny” Les Pauls. All I knew is that they existed, and that there has been some chatter about them being quite good. It just so happened that I was exhibiting at a guitar show that very weekend, and so I asked around, and in fact played several Burnys. It’s hard to tell on a show floor, but yea, they seemed quite nice, and the fact that they had asking prices from about $700 to over a grand indicated that they were not your run of the mill 70s/80s Gibson knock-off. Actually, the fact that they even appeared in the booths of strictly vintage dealers alongside real-deal holy-grail Pauls spoke volumes!
Which brings us to the guitar on display here. After a week or two my buddy acquired a Burney to his liking and brought it over to the studio for me to check out. I was flat blown away. In every possible way, this “les Paul” is magnificent. It’s neck profile is dead-on to a ’59, not as thin as what Gibby is currently calling the “slim-taper 60s profile”, but not as thick as what they call the “50s profile”. No, it’s just plain perfect, it’s the profile EVERY Les Paul affectionado lusts after. Actually, EVERYTHING about the guitar just flat feels right. The weight, balance, action, and intonation are impeccable, and the pickups sound better than anything Gibson’s made this side of about 1965. I wish I could tell you more about these guitars, but they are new to me, and I’m not anywhere close to an expert. However, a little google search will put you in the camp of plenty of experts in a hurry. What I CAN do is tell you a little more about what impresses me so much about this particular example. And by the way, I can’t even tell you much of anything about the pedigree of this particular guitar, as there are no markings inside or outside other than the Burny logo! It was sold as a 1980s model, and so we assume it is. There, that’s about all I can tell ya, PLEASE … y’all feel free to leave some comments if you can shed some light on this instrument!
The first thing that stood out to me was the fact that the binding encased the fret edges, just like a bound-fingerboard Gibson.
The knobs have a magnificent aged amber look.
All the plastic has aged (or came that way) in a most deep and luscious way.
The truss-rod cover looks a little goofy.
She’s sweet. I hope my buddy isn’t looking to get her back any time soon :-)
Hi gang! Sooo, this is a bit of a last minute addition. I just finished a set of fully custom pickups for a Gibson SG-Z bass; it was a TON of R&D to get that design to actually sound good, but man-oh-man did I get there! I was going to blog about THAT … but then in comes this fantastic video of our buddy Daniel at WGS upgrading WGS boss-man David’s MIM Tele, and … well … I just HAD to blog about it. So cool! First, watch this short video, then … let’s talk about Tele upgrades!
Cool, huh? THIS is exactly why I make pickups. Really, it’s the same philosophy as with WGS speakers, and it goes something like this:
“Budget” guitars are now the best playing they have EVER been. Thanks to cheap yet skilled labor in places like Mexico and Indonesia, coupled with modern CNC machining, $200 - $300 can now buy a really good guitar. The problem is, the manufactures put all their money into what folks can SEE (and maybe FEEL) … NOT what they HEAR! And so it is that the weak link in a modern budget guitar is the part that actually makes the sound … the pickup!”
In a way, that’s okay, because the average 12 year old getting their first guitar wouldn’t know holy-grail tone from holy-crap tone. However, in another way that’s just plain disturbing. I mean, think about it. That kid may just stick with the guitar, get good, join a band, and turn into a REAL player … and then, what? I guess he’s just supposed to buy a more EXPENSIVE guitar if he wants decent tone. Or worse yet, maybe he gets so accustomed to bad tone that he just accepts it as standard fare.
Or … our young friend can take that lovely guitar they have now bonded with and turn her into a totally flat-out pro level tone machine! Yea, how about that, baby?
Thing is, it’s really quite simple to do. It comes down to this: 1. Have a good pro-level set-up done, including fret dressing and precise intonating, and 2. Put in a truly GREAT set of pickups (even most American Made guitars will not include truly GREAT pickups), and maybe replace the tone capacitor(s) and volume and tone pots while you’re in there. What you wind up with in the end is a guitar that can stand toe-to-toe with a $10,000+ vintage “Holy-Grail” level instrument for a total investment of maybe five hundred bucks!
Okay, so here are the few “secrets” … just details really … that I’ve came up with over the decades.
Folks, the truth is, many pro players are now in agreement that instruments like the Squire “Classic Vibe” Telecasters and Stratocasters are as good as an American Standard Fender or better. I agree, at least once you have done steps 1-5 above, and your total investment will be way less than an American Fender. That’s why so many pros riding out of Nashville on big busses have MIM Fenders, Squires, and Epiphones riding in the luggage bay below the buss. Why take a stupidly valuable guitar out when you just flat don’t need to?
Howdy friends! Sooo, today I was researching a couple guitars, to see if the ones I just picked up used were indeed the good buys I thought they were (An Epiphone Les Paul Plus Top PRO/FX and a Gibson Les Paul Future Tribute) . Now, I generally go straight to reviews from places like Musicians Friend and Sweetwater to see what other buyers of a particular guitar have to say about it. And, as is always the case, I felt that some of the buyers/reviewers just don’t understand the whole “mail-order” guitar concept. Let’s discuss that.
First, if you only remember ONE THING from this blog, remember this: If a guitar is shipped to you, you should EXPECT that it will need at least a rudimentary set-up. This is even more so the case in extreme weather conditions (read my blog on cold-weather guitar care).
Man, I get tired of people complaining that a guitar arrived at their doorstep from a thousand miles away and actually needed a setup. DUDE, get a clue! If a guitar spends the better part of a week (or more) in an un-climate controlled truck traveling through massive changes in temperature, pressure, and humidity, chances are good that it will need a little tweaking on the set-up. If by chance it arrives with the setup just exactly the way you personally like it, then consider it a big bonus, but do not take it for granted as what you can usually expect.
Which of course leads me to the next piece of this set-up rant: personal preference. Fact is, one man’s barely playable guitar is another man’s dream set-up. Personal preference is an opinion, it’s not a fact.
So, here are some areas that you can EXPECT a guitar to need a little love in after a long and trying journey to arrive at your door. If you feel insecure addressing any of these, take it to a qualified and recommended luthier.
Okay, so … how about those things that do NOT change in shipping and therefore SHOULD be mentioned in a review. It’s totally okay to be subjective here, since these are all items that folks will like or hate to varying degrees
Oh, and when reviewing a guitar on-line, please list your experience and musical style. And for those reading reviews, take this important info into account. The reviews I give the most weight to are those that come from pro players with at least a couple decades under their belts, and preferably in many genres. The “this is my first guitar and I play metal” review is generally one I skip over! Nuff said, now go buy a guitar.
Howdy friendly guitar folks! This past weekend I set up shop at the 4-Amigos Guitar Show in Nashville, one of Nashville’s finest annual shows. Man, I gotta tell ya, I LOVE guitar shows! Let me tell ya why!
First, it is, of course a fantastic place to see holy-grail dream guitars, like this ’59 Burst:
Or, this real-deal ’57 Gold-Top!
As a matter of fact, there are ALWAYS more Les Paul’s that you can shake a stick at!
And acoustic players, there are always plenty of holy-grail acoustics too.
Man, I LOVE seeing the cool, the weird, the wonderful, and the unique guitars like these original 60’s clear Dan Armstrong’s.
Vintage not your cup of tea? Maybe you are looking for a custom builder to lovingly craft your dream guitar from the ground up. Look no further, as plenty of top-notch builders are always showing, like these fine friendly folks from Rock Road Custom Guitars.
Of course, there was some goofy guy there selling some really fantastic looking custom hand-wound guitar pickups and amps!
And, while I’m on the subject of me … I did promise myself that I would NOT be dragging any more guitars home from the show, well … you guessed it, I just couldn’t help myself.
Now, if like me the price on vintage gold-tops is a bit out of your price range, you can ALWAYS find something unique and unexpected at a guitar show that you CAN afford. Here’s the bad-girl that I just couldn’t say no to … oh, and she was just as cheap as she is trashy :-).
As I pen this blog, the entire eastern half of the nation is in an icy, snowy deepfreeze. Everywhere I look I see downed trees, and the news is full of the snow and ice-induced carnage of collapsed roofs and interstate pile-ups. Okay, so I think we all agree that this type of weather sort of sucks … but the question every GUITAR PLAYER should be asking themselves is this: How does this affect my guitar? Let’s talk about that! Hint, if you want to go straight to the “what to do” check-list, feel free to skip ahead to the end.
My first lesson in how sub-freezing temps affect a guitars finish came back in about 1987. I was playing on the road with then country super-star Tom T. Hall. It was one of my first “buss gigs”, and for the most part the gear rode in the unheated bays below the bus. I was REALLY green and didn’t think to bring my acoustic up into the buss as we headed into the north-east states for a Christmas tour. You guessed it, the guitar that went into the bay perfect came out with a finished cracked to pieces. Today, I guess we’d call it “reliced”, but in 1987 it was just called UGLY. The lesson learned: guitar finishes can crack when frozen hard. Now, it’s true that certain finishes will crack worse than others, with acoustics being particularly prone to cracking, but given a hard enough freeze, nearly all guitar finishes can be susceptible. The problem is that the finish shrinks at an entirely different rate than the wood it’s on; the result is cracks, baby!
Which brings me to neck warping and bridge pull-away. Once again, the steel strings will shrink at an entirely different rate than the wood of your guitar. This can cause neck warping and twisting. Also, as the air gets not only colder, but drier as well, the glue holding an acoustic together loses much strength, which, combined with tightened strings, can lead to bridge pull-away on acoustics.
And last, speaking of dry air, even if your guitars are never anywhere near sub-freezing temps; they are almost undoubtedly exposed to much, much drier air in the cold winter months. Very dry air wreaks havoc upon ALL guitars, not just acoustics. ALL guitars can end up with the fret ends extending uncomfortably beyond the edges of the finger-board due to the wood shrinking up. You can also expect ANY guitar to need a little truss-rod tweaking in the cold and dry months (which will again need attention in the hot and humid months). When guitars get very dry, the wood shrinks and cracks, and the glue that holds them together shrinks and fails. Not good! Your guitar may in fact get SO DRY that is takes some drastic re-humidification to even get it acceptably playable again. The following list is from Taylor Guitars,
A dry guitar can exhibit some or all of the following symptoms:
1. Low action. Strings are very close to the fret-board.
2. Hump on fretboard where neck joins body.
3. On NT necks, a slight gap around the fretboard extension.
4. Sunken top across the soundboard between bridge and fingerboard.
5. Back of guitar looks very flat when it is dried out.
6. Sharp fret ends extend beyond the edge of fret-board.
7. The plane of the neck angle on a dry guitar hits above the top of the bridge.
Yikes! That sounds like something to be avoided at all costs! The entire pdf from Taylor on “Symptoms of a Dry Guitar” can be found here.
So there ya go. That’s not so bad, is it? Now get to it, and I’ll talk to y’all again next week; until then, stay warm and keep those guitars happy!